融合説(blending theory) – メンデル以前に唱えられていた遺伝学説

メンデル以前に栄えていた遺伝学説は融合説(blending theory)と呼ばれるものです。

当時、遺伝物質は液体のようなものと考えられていました。つまり、赤と白の花を荒廃すれば、ピンクの花が咲く種子が得られるというように、液体が混ぜ合わされてそれが融合する。これが「遺伝」だと考えられていました。

そして、このピンク色の花どうしを交配した種子もピンク色になるという考えです。つまり、コーヒーと牛乳を混ぜて、コーヒー牛乳にしてしまったら、その後、コーヒーと牛乳には分けられない。遺伝はこのように考えられていました。

メンデルの偉大なところは、この融合説を粒子説(particulate theory)で置き換えたことです。メンデルは自身の理論を1866年に発表しましたが、その業績は日の目を見ることなく、メンデルは亡くなってしまいます。

彼の研究は1900年にド・フリース、コレンス、チェルマックという3人の研究者にそれぞれ独立に再発見されました。「独立」というのは、この3人の研究者は共同で研究をしていたわけではなかったのですが、偶然同じ時期にメンデルが到達していたのと同じ法則を思いついて発表したのです。

また「再発見」というのは、3人はメンデルが35年前に書いた論文の重大さに気づいたという意味ではなく、メンデルが発見していた「メンデルの法則」を「再発見」したという意味です。彼らはメンデルの業績を知らずに、自分がその偉大なる遺伝の法則を発見したと思いました。

しかし、よくよく調べてみたら、四半世紀以上まえに、名も知られていない修道士(メンデル)が、すでに同じ発見をしている。これが科学のよいところですね。偉大なる業績はその本人の業績としていつかは日の目を見る。埋もれてしまっても、本当に価値のある研究ならば、いつか見つけられるのです。

メンデルの法則を再発見した3人の中には、その再発見をするまえからすでに著名な学者となっていた研究者もいますが、著名だからといってその人の名が法則名になることはありませんでした。35年前に亡くなっていても「メンデルの法則」と名付けられました。

参考文献

・ 『遺伝学概説』ジェームズ・クロー

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